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Future LLM Students

Frequently Asked Questions: General Information

The Basics

LSAC’s LLM CAS simplifies the application process for eligible graduates of universities or law schools who wish to obtain an LLM degree from an LLM CAS-participating law school. The admission documents that schools require may vary, but most US schools will ask for transcripts, letters of recommendation, TOEFL or IELTS scores (where applicable), and other relevant, official documents, all of which must be authenticated. The LLM CAS provides an efficient and convenient way to apply to multiple programs. Applicants arrange for the submission of only one set of official school documents to LSAC for authentication and evaluation (if applicable). We will duplicate as needed. The authenticated documents are forwarded to all participating law schools to which the applicant applies.

The LLM CAS creates your law school report by combining:

  • copies of all undergraduate, graduate, and law/professional school transcripts;
  • an International Credential Evaluation report (for internationally educated applicants only);
  • copies of letters of recommendation, as required by each school; and
  • copies of English proficiency scores, if applicable.

To be eligible to apply to a participating LLM program, most schools require that you have completed, or be in the process of completing, a degree that entitles you to practice law.

LSAC maintains a Minimum Degree Requirements by Country chart. We understand that, in some countries, the names of these degrees are in the process of changing. If either your degree or your country of study is not listed, please contact the law schools of interest to you to confirm eligibility.

You are expected to present all postsecondary education documents, including work completed prior to and after the minimum degree listed, according to the requirements of the law schools to which you apply. Any omission of required education history could delay the review of your credentials and, thereby, delay our report to the law schools.

The Law School Admission Council (LSAC) is a nonprofit corporation that provides unique, state-of-the-art products and services to ease the admission process for law schools and their applicants worldwide. Currently, 221 law schools in the United States, Canada, and Australia are members of the Council and benefit from LSAC’s services. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association are LSAC members, as are Canadian law schools recognized by a provincial or territorial law society or government agency.

Founded in 1947, the Council is best known for administering the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), with about 100,000 tests administered annually at testing centers worldwide. LSAC also processes academic credentials for an average of 60,000 law school applicants annually, provides essential software and information for admission offices and applicants, conducts educational conferences for law school professionals and prelaw advisors, sponsors and publishes research, funds diversity and other outreach grant programs, and publishes LSAT preparation books and law school guides, among many other services.

LSAC has contracted with the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) to provide evaluations of education credentials from all countries of the world. AACRAO’s extensive expertise in the field of international education credential evaluation assures consistent and accurate treatment of all international education credentials used in the LLM Credential Assembly Service.

Many ABA-approved law schools require or recommend use of the LLM CAS. If you earned your JD from a US law school, and you are applying to a school that requires you to forward your documents to LSAC or submit an electronic application through LSAC, then you must register for the LLM CAS Document Assembly Service.

If you earned your first degree in law outside of the United States and its territories/associated states, and you are applying to a school that requires you to forward your documents to LSAC, then you must register for the International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation Service in addition to the Document Assembly Service. If you earned your first degree in law outside of the United States and its territories/associated states, and you are not applying to any school that requires the International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation feature of the LLM CAS, then you are not required to register for it. However, you may choose to register for the LLM CAS Document Assembly Service feature if you wish to use the electronic law school application(s) or the Letter of Recommendation Service.

  • Document Assembly Service – $85 fee
  • International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation Service – $135 fee in addition to Document Assembly Service fee (only for LLM applicants educated outside the United States)
  • Law School Report – $30 for the initial report and any updates generated for each school program for each program year. If you apply to multiple programs at the same law school within the same year, you will have to pay a fee for each program to which a report is sent.

A valid credit card is required for all payments.

In order to complete your purchase, you must first log in to your LLM account. Once logged in, at the top right of the browser window there is a link that says Cart. Click on Cart and it will take you to a page that lists everything you are ordering and the total purchase price. At the bottom of the screen, there is a button that says Checkout. Click Checkout and it will take you to the next page, where you may enter your billing information and complete your order.

Credit Card Denial/Stop Payments

If credit card authorization is denied, neither credential assembly/evaluation nor law school reporting will be possible until the fee is paid. Credit card denial will not cancel your registration for this credential service.

Once you are logged in to your account, click on My Account and, under My Account Reports, you can view the detailed report about your purchases.

No, application fees are not included in these fees. Check each law school’s application instructions for information about their fees.

Yes, you remain responsible for the completion of each of your law school applications. However, applicants applying to a participating LLM program can use the LLM CAS interactive website to apply to LLM programs offered by participating schools. The applications are up-to-date as of the time they were submitted to LSAC.

Important: You are responsible for the accuracy of your law school applications. It is a good idea to check each law school’s website or catalog to make sure your application materials are complete and on time.

Carefully check your completed applications before electronically sending them or mailing them to the schools.

Your LLM CAS $85 Document Assembly Service fee covers electronic application processing for participating LLM programs. To get started:

  • search for law schools that interest you and add them to your school list
  • click on the name of each school in your list to access its application and other information
  • go to the application for that school and enter all of the required data

Make sure to follow all of the school’s requirements, including fee payment.

Allow two weeks from the time of receipt for us to process your US transcripts. During peak processing periods, this could take one to two weeks longer. Transcripts from schools located outside of the United States require additional processing time, especially if using the International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation Service. You are urged to make arrangements for transcripts to arrive at LSAC at least four weeks before your first law school application deadline.

If you forget your username or password, you can enter your information on our username/password recovery form, and it will be sent to the email address we have on file for you.

What probably happened is that someone else using the system thought they had the username you are using and entered that into the recovery form. This happens every once in a while, especially for users whose usernames are fairly common. There is no risk to your account security, and it is safe to delete those emails.

If you have registered for an LLM account, any change to name or date of birth must be submitted to LSAC in writing and requires a signature. Fax, mail, or scan and email your signed request for correction to LSAC.

Fax: 215.504.1456

Email: LLMinfo@LSAC.org

LSAC LLM CAS
662 Penn Street
Dept. 8511
Newtown PA 18940-8511
USA

All other biographical information may be changed online. Click the My Account tab and select Profile.

LSAC reserves the right to update your biographical data based on information you provide in connection with the services you use. Information you provide to a law school on an electronic law school application does not update your LSAC.org account.

Choose the Credentials/Transcripts link under the Apply tab on your LLM account. Then click on the applicable Add Institution button to add the school. If the Add Institution button is not visible, please send your request to LLMinfo@LSAC.org. Include the name of the school, country in which it is located, dates attended, degree expected or awarded if applicable, and your name and LSAC account number.

Click the School Search tab. You have three search options:

  1. Search Schools – Alphabetical, which provides a list of all schools alphabetically;
  2. Search Schools – Areas of Interest, which provides a list of law schools by LLM program name; and
  3. Search Schools – Location, which provides a view of a United States map and allows you to choose schools according to their geographical location.

You may add schools from all three places. Simply click on the Add box in front of the school name to save a school to your school list. Click on My School List, after making your choices, to view the list of schools you have saved. You may rank the schools in order of interest to you and add notes for yourself about each one. This information is solely for your use; the law schools cannot view your notes or the ranks you have assigned to your school choices.

Your account expiration date and the service(s) for which you registered are listed on the left side of your online LLM account pages.

Because of the large volume of registrations received, LSAC cannot prevent the processing of a registration once it is submitted. Refund policies apply to all methods of registration and are enforced without exception.

If we have not yet received your first degree in law transcript, no letters of recommendation have been received, and no electronic applications have been transmitted through LSAC, LSAC will refund the full $85 Document Assembly Service fee and the full $135 International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation Service fee.

Your request must be in writing and received before your LLM CAS registration expires. Your refund will take approximately six weeks to process, and your service will be canceled.

Law school report fees are not refundable if the report has been forwarded to the law school. LSAC cannot transfer a report fee payment to another law school or LLM program.

For all refund requests, include your name, address, LSAC account number, signature, and date. Mail to:

LSAC
LLM Credential Assembly Service
Dept. 8511
Newtown PA 18940-8511
USA

Or fax to 215.504.1456.

Transcripts, Scores, and Other Academic Records

Transcript is the term most commonly used in the United States for the official academic school record listing one’s coursework and grades earned.

For those educated outside of the United States, transcripts may be known to you as mark sheets, grade sheets, course records, academic records, or examination results and include, where applicable, diploma and diploma supplement, degree certificate and graduation certificate, and first state exam certificate. The transcript is a complete list of courses taken and grades earned at an institution, college, university, or school.

It is your responsibility to arrange for ALL of your institutions to send transcripts, academic records, mark sheets, and so on, prepared in the original language, to LSAC directly, by mail, in a sealed institution envelope with a school stamp or seal across the sealed flap. This includes those schools you have visited for a semester or summer abroad. When using an express mail service, the sealed institution envelope should be contained inside of the express mailer. Documents will not be accepted loose inside of the express mailer.

Neither electronic copies nor student-issued copies are acceptable.

Transcripts will not be returned to candidates under any circumstances. LSAC will not accept WES or any other outside evaluations in place of transcripts.

The Transcript Request Form may be printed out at the completion of your online registration and must accompany each of your transcripts. You will always find a link to the corresponding Transcript Request Form under each of the institutions you have listed on your Transcripts page. Send the form to every postsecondary institution listed in your account and ask each institution to complete the form and to send an official transcript to LSAC at the address noted on the form.

Transcript Request Forms will be available in your LLM account only after you create an LLM account and enter your institution information. Once you are logged in to your LLM account, click on the Apply tab and select Credentials/Transcripts to obtain a form for each institution listed.

Safari—The default application in OS X to view PDFs is Preview. Some LSAC PDF documents do not display correctly in Preview and must be viewed using Adobe Reader. Opening the PDF document in Preview will also place a copy of the file on your desktop as Example.pdf. Open Adobe Reader, click File, then Open. Browse to your desktop and select the downloaded copy of the PDF. This should open the PDF document properly and allow you to view and print it.

Firefox—Firefox displays PDF documents using its own browser software, and some LSAC documents will not display correctly. To change Firefox’s default PDF viewer to Adobe Reader, select the Tools menu item, then Options. Click on the Applications tab to display the default programs linked to each file extension. For each Adobe Forms Document listed in the Content Type column, select the pull-down menu for the associated Action and change it to Use Adobe Reader (default). Reopen your PDF document; it should open in Adobe Reader with your personal information.

This address will be listed on your Transcript Request Form.

LSAC LLM Credential Assembly Service
662 Penn Street
Dept. 8511
Newtown PA 18940-8511
USA

If you are applying to law schools that require your class rank, then you should ask your institution to include a statement of rank with the transcript that they mail to us. Where applicable, this includes a statement to the fact that your institution does not use a system of class rank. Such statements must come from the institution in a sealed institution envelope. We will not accept class rank statements written or sent by the candidate.

When no grades are available yet, we ask that you arrange for the school to send us written confirmation of your current enrollment, including your name, the program in which you are enrolled, the anticipated date of completion, and the degree you are expected to earn (if applicable). It should be mailed in a sealed institution envelope to the address provided on your LSAC LLM Transcript Request Form.

While we require the academic records for each institution you have listed, some reports may be sent with only partial documentation available. Each law school has designated its own LSAC report preferences. Some require all documentation before a report is sent to them, while others will accept the report with only your first degree in law transcript and await the remaining documents. In any event, you are urged to make arrangements for the delivery of your transcripts as early in the application process as possible.

Once your report is complete, it will be available for you to view via your online account. You will have access to view the summary of the report, but copies of your transcripts will not be available to view. We are authorized to make copies of your academic records available only to the law schools that participate in the LSAC LLM Credential Assembly Service.

For candidates using the evaluation and authentication service, the grade average reported will usually match the one on your official transcript. In some cases, it may differ because, unlike some schools, our evaluators do include failed and repeated courses in the calculation of the grade average.

If, after reviewing the completed evaluation of your credentials, you wish to challenge an item(s) on the report, you may do so by requesting a reevaluation.

If you find an error, print the report, circle the error, and write the correct information on the report. Mail the corrected report and accompanying explanation to:

Law School Admission Council
LLM Credential Assembly Service
662 Penn Street
Dept. 8511
Newtown PA 18940-8511
USA

You will be notified of the outcome of LSAC’s review of your corrections. Note: What may look like an error to you could be the result of a policy or procedure the law schools have asked us to implement.

Please note that the following instances do not require reevaluation:

  • If we already have a transcript and your report is complete, but the same school sends us a final/updated/corrected transcript after the fact. In this case, we will update your report free of charge upon receipt of the official updated transcript from the school.
  • Adding a TOEFL/IELTS score, regardless of whether or not the report has been completed. Scores may be added at any time free of charge.

Most schools will ask applicants for whom English is not their native language to take a standardized test. Each school sets its own standard for required minimum scores on the tests. While the LLM programs may accept scores from various testing agencies, LSAC will only accept electronic score reports for either TOEFL or IELTS exams. LSAC will include your TOEFL/IELTS scores on your LLM International Credential Evaluation upon receipt of an official score report from the testing service.

We have arranged with the Educational Testing Service (ETS) to receive your TOEFL scores electronically. This is only possible if and when you supply ETS with our institution code (8395) when you place your order for a copy of the score report to be sent to LSAC. LSAC has also arranged with IELTS to receive scores electronically. You must request that your official score report be sent to LSAC for electronic download using the IELTS system to Law School Admission Council LLM/JD Credential Assembly Svc. We cannot accept paper copies of scores.

Please note that once we receive a TOEFL or IELTS score, it cannot be deleted or replaced. There are no exceptions to this rule. In the event that we already have a score on file for you, and you decide to retest and have the new score sent to us, we will report both scores. The new score will not replace the previous score, regardless of how long ago the previous score was reported. LSAC will report all English proficiency scores on your law school report.

Letters of Recommendation

Use of the service is optional unless a law school to which you are applying states that its use is required. You should always check the specific letter of recommendation requirements of each law school to which you are applying by consulting each law school’s application materials.

Yes, LSAC will accept letters of recommendation from such a service. The LLM Letter of Recommendation Form must accompany each letter. When the form is completed by the institution’s service, the lower portion may either be filled in with the recommender’s name and address, or—if the recommender’s address is not available—with the recommender’s name and the address of the institution’s service.

No. You need to request only one “general” letter when the content is the same. You then designate the school(s) to which you want the letter sent. It is not necessary to address letters to specific schools if the content of the letter is identical for each school. This creates unnecessary effort for your recommenders and may delay processing of your letters by LSAC. The recommender need not include school-specific information in a general letter.

From the Credentials/Letters of Recommendation page of your online account:

  • Select Add/Edit My Recommenders, then select Add NEW Recommender.
  • Choose Recommender as the designation and fill in the fields to create a form that you will provide to the recommender. Use the Help icons [?] to assist you in completing the form.
  • When you have completed the form, click Submit. On the next screen, you will have the option to either print the form and give it to your recommender or send the form by email.
  • Click Email next to the recommender’s name. You will see “Access Rights Waiver.” Click Continue, carefully review the contact information, then click Send Email. You may resend the email, if necessary, from the Letters section of your account.
  • OR
  • Click Print LOR Form next to the recommender’s name. Give the form to your recommender. You may reprint the form, if necessary, from the Letters section of your LLM account.

The purpose of the description on the Letter of Recommendation Form is to guide you in assigning letters to law schools.

  • A letter that you plan to send to multiple schools might be called “for all law schools.”
  • A letter intended for one specific school could be described as “for X law school.”
  • A letter for schools with certain specialized programs could be described as “for schools with (health) law programs.”

After entering your recommender information, you may submit your request for a letter from your LLM account. You may have LSAC send an email that includes the prefilled LOR form to the recommender. Or, you may print out your prefilled LOR form to give to your recommender. The form will be barcoded and prepopulated with your information and your recommender’s information.

Please Note

Do not use Google Chrome to print your LOR forms; your personal information will not print correctly, and the form will not be accepted by LSAC.

Safari—The default application in OS X to view PDFs is Preview. Some LSAC PDF documents do not display correctly in Preview and must be viewed using Adobe Reader. Opening the PDF document in Preview will also place a copy of the file on your desktop as “Example.pdf.” Open Adobe Reader, click File, then Open. Browse to your desktop and select the downloaded copy of the PDF. This should open the PDF document properly and allow you to view and print it.

Firefox—Firefox displays PDF documents using its own browser software, and some LSAC documents will not display correctly. To change Firefox’s default PDF viewer to Adobe Reader, select the Tools menu item, then Options. Click on the Applications tab to display the default programs linked to each file extension. For each Adobe Forms Document listed in the Content Type column, select the pull-down menu for the associated Action and change it to Use Adobe Reader (default). Reopen your PDF document; it should open in Adobe Reader with your personal information.

Please Note

Do not use Google Chrome to print your LOR forms; your personal information will not print correctly, and the form will not be accepted by LSAC.

Yes. Once the recommender receives your prefilled Letter of Recommendation Form, he or she may choose to upload a letter for you or mail a letter to LSAC.

Choose the option that is the most convenient for you and your recommender:

  • Print—The recommender mails the letter with the form you print.
  • Email—The recommender uploads the recommendation electronically at the Applicant References website. (The recommender will need to create an account on that website. Instructions will be included in the email that LSAC sends to the recommender.)

You need to assign each letter to each school. Letters that you assign will be sent with your law school reports. Unassigned letters will not be sent at all.

  • Choose Add School/Term under My LOR Assignments and add the school(s) and terms to your school list.
  • Choose Add Term next to the school’s name to select the Term/Program.
  • Choose Assign, then select the L number(s) you wish to have included with law school reports to those schools.

Letters are matched to your file by the L number on the form, NOT by the description. It is important that the recommender attaches the correct form to each letter if he or she is submitting more than one.

Letters may be sent to law schools upon receipt by LSAC, when your file is complete, or at a later date, depending upon the preferences of each law school. Letter(s) received by LSAC after law school(s) receive your initial LLM Credential Assembly Service report will be sent to school(s) in accordance with the preferences they have specified to LSAC.

You may make a change only if the letter has not been sent. Choose Assign, then indicate a different L number.

You may make a change only if the letter has not been sent. You may not remove a letter once a law school report has been printed or after the school’s term has ended. If the school will accept more letters than initially directed, you may direct additional letters to this school. The additional letters will be sent to the school when the school receives the next law school report. You also may not assign more letters than a school indicates they will accept.

Please try typing in the email address manually rather than copying and pasting it. If you continue to have issues, please contact Technical Support.

If you intend to reuse a letter of recommendation for an admission year other than the one for which it was written, or for a different law degree program, it is a good idea to contact the recommender as a courtesy to make sure that the person does not mind this reuse. Some recommenders may wish to write an updated letter when you apply in a subsequent reporting year or to a different type of program. A recommender may decide to rescind a letter after becoming aware that it has been repurposed, if permission to reuse the letter has not been requested and granted.

You may delete a recommender up until the time you print the LOR form or send the eLOR request.

  • Choose Add/Edit My Recommenders.
  • Choose Delete next to the name of the recommender.

Law School Reports

The LLM CAS creates your law school report by combining

  • copies of all undergraduate, graduate, and law/professional school transcripts, as required by each school;
  • an International Credential Evaluation report (for international applicants only);
  • copies of letters of recommendation, as required by each school; and
  • copies of English proficiency exam scores, if applicable.

When you submit your application to a specific LLM program online, you will be required to pay for the report at that time. If you apply using a paper application, or if you are not submitting a law school application through LSAC, then you may pay for the law school report by adding a report to your Shopping Cart from the Apply/Applications page of your LLM account. The cost is $30 per report. Note: We are unable to send law school reports at your request.

You do not need to inform LSAC of the law schools to which you want reports sent. Once you apply to the schools, they will request your report directly from LSAC. Just be sure to pay for the report for the program to which you are applying. Note: We are unable to send law school reports at your request.

You need one report for each participating LLM program to which you are applying. When you use the LLM Credential Assembly Service, you will be charged for a report for each LLM program to which you are applying electronically. If you are applying on paper, you may order a report for the school(s) via the Apply/Applications page of your online account.

After the initial report is sent to the law school, an update is sent in the event that we then receive additional or updated transcript data, TOEFL/IELTS score(s), or letter(s) of recommendation. The status message on the report will list the reason for the update.

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